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First- and second-generation biofuels are widely recognized as unsustainable in the long run due to associated challenges and are incapable to completely displace petroleum-based transportation fuels. Biofuel from algae (third generation of biofuels) is an emerging area of research and offers several potential benefits over first and second generation of biofuels. To achieve the goals of sustainable development needed today requires moving beyond the general compliance to specified norms for environmental protection and a cradle-to-grave-approach-based analysis of products and processes. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an analytical tool to assess the environmental, social, and economic performance of alternative products and processes throughout its life cycle. Since fossil fuels have created environmental concerns, any alterative should perform better on environmental concerns than fossil fuels before it is promoted. Therefore, LCA of algal biofuels is imperative in order to assess its suitability over fossil fuels.



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